International Flight No. 93
|No.||Surname||Given names||Position||Flight No.||Duration||Orbits|
|1||Kizim||Leonid Denisovich||Commander||2||236d 22h 49m 04s||3748|
|2||Soloviyov||Vladimir Alekseyevich||Flight Engineer||1||236d 22h 49m 04s||3748|
|3||Atkov||Oleg Yuriyevich||Research Cosmonaut||1||236d 22h 49m 04s||3748|
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Launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome; landing with Soyuz T-11 capsule 46 km east of Arkalyk.
Following a one day solo flight Soyuz T-10 docked with Salyut 7 on February 02, 1984. The cosmonauts became the third resident crew of the station. The crew entered the darkened Salyut 7 station carrying flashlights. The cosmonauts commented on the burnt-metal odor of the drogue docking unit, but the station became fully activated.
Several medical experiments under the lead of Oleg Atkov were performed. Physician Oleg Atkov did household chores and monitored his own health and that of his colleagues, who conducted experiments.
Progress 19 docked with the station from February 23, 1984 - March 31, 1984. The freighter transported various cargoes to the Salyut 7 orbital station. The vessel docked with Salyut 7 on February 23, 1984 at 08:21:00 UTC, undocked on March 31, 1984 at 09:40:00 UTC and was destroyed in reentry on April 01, 1984 at 18:18:00 UTC.
The first visiting crew arrived with Soyuz T-11 on April 04, 1984 and remained until April 11, 1984. Soyuz T-11 brought Indian cosmonaut Rakesh Sharma to the station, who conducted an Earth observation program concentrating on India. He also did life sciences and materials processing experiments and became the first yoga practitioner in zero-G.
On April 13, 1984, Soyuz T-11 was repositioned to the front port by rotating Salyut 7, freeing the aft port for Progress 20. The resupply craft was docked to the station from April 17, 1984 - May 06, 1984. The freighter had docked with Salyut 7 on April 17, 1984 at 09:22:00 UTC, undocked on May 06, 1984 at 17:46:00 UTC and was destroyed in reentry on May 07, 1984 at 00:32:51 UTC.
Meanwhile the cosmonauts began the first phase of the Salyut 7 propulsion system repair. The propulsion systems of Progress spacecraft had filled in for the Salyut 7 propulsion system after its main oxidiser line ruptured in September 1983. Progress 20 delivered a special ladder for reaching the area of the damaged line. In addition, before launch the exterior of Progress 20's orbital module was fitted with a special extension with foot restraints, as well as with containers for 25 special tools.
The first EVA was performed by Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov on April 23, 1984 (4h 15m). On April 17, 1984 Progress 20 docked at Salyut 7's aft port carrying 25 tools and other equipment for repairing the station's main propellant system, the ODU, which suffered an oxidizer system rupture on September 09, 1983. The ODU was located in Salyut 7's unpressurized aft equipment compartment. There were no handholds near the ODU, so engineers attached a special work platform with foot restraints for holding the cosmonauts at the worksite to Progress 20's forward dry cargo module. The TsUP extended the platform by remote control prior to the EVA. Oleg Atkov provided support from inside Salyut 7. Total distance between the Salyut 7 airlock hatch and the worksite was 15 m (49 ft). The cosmonauts' progress over the station's hull was impeded by the 40 kg (88 lb) of equipment they carried; this included a tool caddy, cutting tools, wrenches, bypass pipes, a waste container, and, most encumbering of all, a ladder for reaching the worksite. Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov drove anchor pins into the equipment compartment's plastic skin to attach the ladder and tool containers, then unfolded the ladder to its full 5-m (16-ft) length before closing out this first of two EVAs scheduled for April 1984.
The second spacewalk occurred on April 26, 1984 (5h 00m). Salyut 6 EVA veteran Valeri Ryumin monitored Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov from the TsUP as they performed their second ODU repair EVA, which was scheduled to last 4 hours, 5 minutes. The EVA occurs in the early morning hours, Moscow time. Salyut 7's orbital geometry meant that radio relay ships in the Atlantic and Pacific permitted 20-50 minutes of communication between station and TsUP during each 90-minutes orbit. Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov needed about 20 minutes to move from the Salyut 7 airlock to the worksite, where they set up a TV camera so the TsUP could watch their work. Leonid Kizim took up position on the ladder installed on the previous EVA, while Vladimir Soloviyov placed his boots in the foot restraints on the Progress 20 extension. They pulled aside thermal blankets and cut through the station's plastic skin to reach the oxidizer plumbing. The cosmonauts located and replaced a valve on a "shut-off part of the reserve line," but only after a nut locked by epoxy resin thwarted their efforts for 2 hours. The oxidizer system was then pressurized with nitrogen to check their work, revealing that the ODU still leaked. The cosmonauts asked for and received an extension to complete work on the reserve line; when the extension lapsed Valeri Ryumin had to order the cosmonauts back inside Salyut 7.
The third EVA on April 29, 1984 (2h 45m) was conducted by the same cosmonauts. Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov lobbied for a third April EVA and, after some debate on the ground, were granted permission to attempt to complete the ODU repair. With this EVA Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov became the first Soviet spacewalkers to conduct three EVAs in one flight, an honor first enjoyed in 1966 by U.S. astronaut Edwin Aldrin on Gemini 12. Oleg Atkov monitored crew status from inside Salyut 7. The cosmonauts finished work on the line they repaired during their second EVA, then installed a bypass line between two fill tubes, creating a new conduit to the main oxidizer supply. After they completed their work, nitrogen was again pumped through the system to check its integrity. To the dismay of all, the ODU plumbing still leaked. Leonid Kizim and Anatoli Soloviyov replaced the thermal blankets and returned inside while troubleshooters on the ground resumed efforts to localize the leak.
Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov performed the fourth spacewalk on May 03, 1984 (2h 45m). The fourth EVA occurred on the cosmonauts' 85th day in space. According to Vladimir Soloviyov, by this time they were adept at moving over Salyut 7's hull. The cosmonauts removed the thermal blankets again and installed a second conduit in the Salyut 7 oxidizer system. Oleg Atkov and controllers in the TsUP were then able at last to pin down the precise location of the ruptured pipe. Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov were dismayed to learn that they lacked tools adequate to complete the repair. They replaced the thermal blankets and rejoined Oleg Atkov inside Salyut 7, their efforts again thwarted. Progress 20 undocked on May 06, 1984, taking the special extension and foot restraints with it. The cargo ship reentered Earth's atmosphere and burned up on May 07, 1984.
Progress 21 docked with Salyut 7 on May 10, 1984 and delivered two 9 m² solar array extensions. The unmanned freighter docked with Salyut 7 on May 10, 1984 at 00:10:00 UTC, undocked on May 26, 1984 at 09:41:00 UTC and was destroyed in reentry on May 26, 1984 at 15:00:30 UTC.
The solar array extensions were added in the fifth EVA by Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov on May 18, 1984 (3h 03m). Salyut 7 had three solar arrays at launch, all of which were scheduled to be augmented over the period of the station's occupancy. Augmenting the center (top) array required two EVAs in November 1983. The Progress 21 automated freighter delivered extensions for the port array on May 10, 1984. During this period Progress flights were frequent to make up for air spilled into space from the transfer compartment during EVAs, and because of the added logistics requirements of having three crew members on board Salyut 7. Adding the port array extensions required only one EVA, demonstrating the benefits of EVA experience (this was Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov's fifth EVA) and of applying lessons learned from the November EVAs, during which Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov performed neutral buoyancy simulations of the array installation in the Star City Hydrolaboratory. The new panels contained cells made of gallium arsenide that were more efficient at producing electricity than the silicon cells launched with Salyut 7. Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov left the airlock toting tools and the two solar array extensions, each in a separate container. They discarded the containers after removing the panels, taking "care. . . to cast them into a different orbit, to prevent the station from encountering them in the future." From foot restraints Vladimir Soloviyov and Leonid Kizim assembled each 4.56-sq-m (49-sq-ft) extension, then attached the first and winched it into position. Oleg Atkov used controls inside Salyut 7 to turn the port array 180 deg so it presented its other side to the cosmonauts, who then attached and winched into place the second add-on panel. Vladimir Soloviyov struggled to tie two knots in wire bundles linking the arrays to the station's main external power panel, a task he later compared to "trying to thread a needle in boxing gloves." Their work added 1.2kW to Salyut 7's power supply.
Progress 22 was docked to the station from May 30, 1984 - July 15, 1984. The vessel docked with Salyut 7 on May 30, 1984 at 15:47:00 UTC, undocked on July 15, 1984 at 13:36:00 UTC and was destroyed in reentry on July 15, 1984 at 18:52:00 UTC.
The second visiting crew arrived on Soyuz T-12 on July 18, 1984 and stayed until July 29, 1984. The crew included veteran cosmonaut Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Buran shuttle program cosmonaut Igor Volk, and Svetlana Savitskaya. On July 25, 1984 Vladimir Dzhanibekov and Svetlana Savitskaya performed an EVA (3h 35m), during which they tested the URI multipurpose tool. They cut, welded, soldered, and coated metal samples. During their, the six cosmonauts aboard Salyut 7 also conducted Rezonans tests and collected station air samples.
The sixth and final EVA occurred on August 08, 1984 (5h 00m). The Soyuz T-12 crew delivered a Portable Pneumo Press to the resident crew of Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Soloviyov, and Oleg Atkov. The tool was developed specifically to allow completion of the Salyut 7 ODU oxidizer system repair. Vladimir Dzhanibekov received training in its use on Earth, and in turn trained Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov aboard Salyut 7 during his visit. The Soyuz T-12 crew also delivered an instructional videotape, manuals, and photos of the device in operation. Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov moved to the worksite, pulled back the thermal blankets, and used the press to squeeze a stainless steel pipe. Checks showed that the ODU oxidizer system was at last sealed. The EVA marked the tenth EVA for the Orlan-D suits they wore and the last use of the Orlan-D suit. Perhaps because it was old, Vladimir Soloviyov's suit suffered cooling water pump failure during the EVA. He compensated by operating primary and backup circulating fans simultaneously and resting periodically to cool off. Before returning inside, Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov removed a sample of silicon solar cell material so engineers could study its degradation. They used a special holding tool to avoid contaminating it with their suit gloves. Physician Oleg Atkov later reported that the men's hands were in bad shape after the EVA, "as if they had been in a fist fight," though their general health remained good. In an interview after the flight, the cosmonauts said that their work was "a rather good rehearsal for future major installations," and that "in future such work will be indispensable for the servicing of. . . satellite systems." "The experience," they added, "is also valuable in that it forces the crew to learn 'on the move,' when already aboard the space station."
Progress 23 was docked to the station from August 16, 1984 - August 26, 1984. The freighter docked with Salyut 7 on August 16, 1984 at 08:11:00 UTC, undocked on August 26, 1984 at 16:13:00 UTC and was destroyed in reentry on August 28, 1984 at 01:28:00 UTC.
The Soyuz spacecraft is composed of three elements attached end-to-end - the Orbital Module, the Descent Module and the Instrumentation/Propulsion Module. The crew occupied the central element, the Descent Module. The other two modules are jettisoned prior to re-entry. They burn up in the atmosphere, so only the Descent Module returned to Earth.
Having shed two-thirds of its mass, the Soyuz reached Entry Interface - a point 400,000 feet (121.9 kilometers) above the Earth, where friction due to the thickening atmosphere began to heat its outer surfaces. With only 23 minutes left before it lands on the grassy plains of central Asia, attention in the module turned to slowing its rate of descent.
Eight minutes later, the spacecraft was streaking through the sky at a rate of 755 feet (230 meters) per second. Before it touched down, its speed slowed to only 5 feet (1.5 meter) per second, and it lands at an even lower speed than that. Several onboard features ensure that the vehicle and crew land safely and in relative comfort.
Four parachutes, deployed 15 minutes before landing, dramatically slowed the vehicle's rate of descent. Two pilot parachutes were the first to be released, and a drogue chute attached to the second one followed immediately after. The drogue, measuring 24 square meters (258 square feet) in area, slowed the rate of descent from 755 feet (230 meters) per second to 262 feet (80 meters) per second.
The main parachute was the last to emerge. It is the largest chute, with a surface area of 10,764 square feet (1,000 square meters). Its harnesses shifted the vehicle's attitude to a 30-degree angle relative to the ground, dissipating heat, and then shifted it again to a straight vertical descent prior to landing.
The main chute slowed the Soyuz to a descent rate of only 24 feet (7.3 meters) per second, which is still too fast for a comfortable landing. One second before touchdown, two sets of three small engines on the bottom of the vehicle fired, slowing the vehicle to soften the landing.
Soyuz T-11 with the three cosmonauts of the third resident crew departed on October 02, 1984. A new spaceflight record was set.
Last update on May 01, 2017.