ISS: Expedition 46
|Given names:||Scott Joseph||Mikhail Borisovich||Sergei Aleksandrovich||Yuri Ivanovich||Timothy Nigel||Timothy Lennart|
|Position:||ISS-CDR||Flight Engineer||Flight Engineer||Flight Engineer||Flight Engineer||Flight Engineer|
|Spacecraft (Launch):||Soyuz TMA-16M||Soyuz TMA-16M||Soyuz TMA-18M||Soyuz TMA-19M||Soyuz TMA-19M||Soyuz TMA-19M|
|Launchtime:||19:42:57.549 UTC||19:42:57.549 UTC||04:37:43.233 UTC||11:03:09.328 UTC||11:03:09.328 UTC||11:03:09.328 UTC|
|Spacecraft (Landing):||Soyuz TMA-18M||Soyuz TMA-18M||Soyuz TMA-18M||Soyuz TMA-19M||Soyuz TMA-19M||Soyuz TMA-19M|
|Landingtime:||04:25:50.5 UTC||04:25:50.5 UTC||04:25:50.5 UTC||09:15:06,3 UTC||09:15:06,3 UTC||09:15:06,3 UTC|
|Mission duration:||340d 08h 42m 54s||340d 08h 42m 54s||181d 23h 48m 07s||185d 22h 11m 57s||185d 22h 11m 57s||185d 22h 11m 57s|
|Given names:||Jeffrey Nels||Sergei Aleksandrovich||Oleg Ivanovich||Anatoli Alekseyevich||Takuya||Kathleen Hallisey "Kate"|
|Position:||ISS-CDR||Flight Engineer||Flight Engineer||Flight Engineer||Flight Engineer||Flight Engineer|
Launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
ISS Expedition 46 began with the undocking of spacecraft Soyuz TMA-17M on December 11, 2015 at 09:49:35 UTC. The Flight Engineers of the former Expedition 45 (Oleg Kononenko, Kimiya Yui and Kjell Lindgren) returned safely to Earth.
Following an only six hours solo flight Soyuz TMA-19M docked to ISS on December 15, 2015. Yuri Malenchenko, Timothy Kopra and Timothy Peake became the ISS Expedition 46 (together with ISS Expedition 45 crew members Scott Kelly, Mikhail Korniyenko and Sergei Volkov). Yuri Malenchenko manually docked the Soyuz TMA-19M spacecraft to the International Space Station's Rassvet module after an initial automated attempt was aborted. Yuri Malenchenko took control of the Soyuz, backed it away from the station to assess the Soyuz' systems, then re-approached the complex for the manual docking.
Progress M-28M undocked from the station on December 19, 2015 at 07:35 UTC. The freighter reached the ISS on July 25, 2015 and delivered more than 3 tons of food, fuel and supplies to the crew.
The unmanned Progress MS cargo ship launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on December 21, 2015 at 08:44:39 UTC on a two-day trip to deliver more than three tons of food, fuel and supplies to the station's Expedition 46 crew.
Progress MS transport cargo spacecraft is the new upgraded series of the Progress-type transport spacecraft that have replaced the Progress MM series. Progress MS differs from the previous series of transport spacecraft in that it has an additional external compartment. Each compartment on the outside surface of the spacecraft can hold four launch containers. The safety is enhanced due to a backup system of electric drivers of the docking mechanism and the connection airtightness mechanism, and due to additional anti-meteorite protection panels which ensure a higher resistance of the cargo compartment body against breaches from micro-meteorite particles.
The functional capabilities of the spacecraft's on-board systems are enlarged due to the possibility to control the spacecraft and monitor its on-board systems outside the radio vision zones of the measuring stations in the territory of Russia by means of an on-board radio system through relay satellites, due to an uninterrupted update of the status vector on board the spacecraft by means of the satellite navigation equipment, which excludes the use of special ground-based orbit-defining means, due to the possibility to define the relative position of the spacecraft and the station through a data exchange by means of a board-to-board radio line, and due to a higher quality of the television image from the docking control TV camera, which is transmitted through a digital radio line. The Kvant V on-board radio system with antenna/feeder devices has been replaced with the new unified command telemetry system (UCTS). Instead of the Kurs A approach/docking equipment, the new Progress MS features the Kurs NA system.
Scott Kelly and Timothy Kopra performed an unplanned spacewalk on December 21, 2015 (3h 16m). The pair moved the station's mobile transporter rail car so it can be latched in place ahead of the docking of a Russian cargo resupply spacecraft on December 23, 2015. The mobile transporter - used to position the station's robotic Canadarm2 - stalled on December 16, 2015 just four inches (10 centimeters) from where it began its move, while flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston were attempting to reposition it robotically. The cause of the stall still is being evaluated.
Scott Kelly and Timothy Kopra floated out of the Quest airlock to the area where the Mobile Transporter has stalled to check out the position of its brake handles and other mechanisms to make sure the rail car can be commanded to move back to worksite 4 by robotic flight controllers at Mission Control, Houston. It is suspected that a brake handle on an equipment cart attached to the starboard side of the transporter may have inadvertently engaged, which if correct, should easily be released to allow for the transporter to be moved into place for it's latching.
Scott Kelly and Timothy Kopra made quick work of releasing brake handles on the crew equipment (CETA) carts on either side of the mobile transporter rail car so it could be latched in place ahead of docking of Russia's Progress MS cargo spacecraft.
Their primary objective completed, the two Expedition 46 astronauts tackled several get-ahead tasks. Scott Kelly routed a second pair of cables in preparation for the installation of an International Docking Adapter (IDA) to support U.S. commercial crew vehicles, continuing work he began during a November 2015 spacewalk. Timothy Kopra routed an ethernet cable that ultimately will connect to a Russian laboratory module. They also retrieved tools that had been in a toolbox on the outside of the station, so they can be used for future work.
Progress MS docked to the International Space Station on December 23, 2015 at 10:27:01 UTC. The two-day rendezvous was deliberately planned to enable Russian flight controllers to test new software and communications equipment on the vehicle that will be standard for future Progress and piloted Soyuz spacecraft. The Progress will spend more than six months at the station before departing in early July 2016 for its deorbit into the Earth's atmosphere during which it will burn up over the Pacific Ocean.
On January 15, 2016 Timothy Kopra and Timothy Peake ventured outside the space station's Quest airlock (4h 43m) for another spacewalk to replace a failed voltage regulator that compromised one of the station's eight power channels on November 13, 2015. The unit was relatively easy to replace because it is a simple box that can be removed by undoing one bolt. Additional tasks included deploying cables for the future installation of an International Docking Adapter (IDA) that will accommodate U.S. commercial crew vehicles, and retrieving a broken light from a truss camera. The spacewalk had to be shortened due to water in Timothy Kopra`s helmet.
Cosmonauts Yuri Malenchenko and Sergei Volkov left the station through the Pirs airlock on February 03, 2016 for the next EVA (4h 45m). The tasks included installing hardware and science experiments on the orbital lab's Russian segment.
The spacewalkers performed works with the experiment Test at two locations: they took away samples from the outer surface of the docking compartment Pirs hatch and in the area of the cover window #8 at the service module Zvezda. Goal of the experiments is to develop methods for detecting leaks and control of elements of the exterior surface of the ISS.
The cosmonauts also dismantled a monoblock responsible for exposing samples of organic and biological materials in open space (experiment Expose-R) and set the unit samples #2 from an experiment for the study of space influence on the mechanical properties of materials. At the same module, they had to replace a removable cassette container, where the samples are placed of the exterior of stations in conditions of prolonged exposure, change the orientation of the pressure control unit on the module Poisk.
One of the important tasks were works on an experiment with the goal to develop technologies for sticking film thermal control coating, secure package screen-vacuum thermal insulation on the surface to be repaired and transactions that require bonding film materials in space flight.
For more convenient travel on the outer surface of the ISS the spacewalkers installed handrails on the soft part of the conical device of the Functional Cargo Block Zarya. Upon completion of the main tasks the cosmonauts started a photo documentation of the external surface of the ISS Russian segment.
After delivering more than 7,000 pounds (3,175 kg) of cargo to support dozens of science experiments from around the world, Orbital ATK's Cygnus cargo spacecraft left the International Space Station on February 19, 2016. The freighter was filled with trash.
The Cygnus spacecraft, which arrived at the station December 09, 2015, was detached from the Earth-facing side of the station's Unity module using the Canadarm2 robotic arm, operated by ground controllers at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. NASA's Mission Control Center maneuvered Cygnus into place and Expedition 46 robotic arm operators Scott Kelly and Timothy Kopra gave the command for its 12:26 UTC release.
Once the spacecraft was in safe distance from the station, its engines fired twice, pushing it into Earth's atmosphere where it burned up over the Pacific Ocean.
Experiments delivered on Cygnus supported NASA and other research investigations during Expeditions 45 and 46, in areas such as biology, biotechnology, and physical and Earth science - research that impacts life on Earth. Investigations included a new life science facility that will support studies on cell cultures, bacteria and other microorganisms, a microsatellite deployer and the first microsatellite to be deployed from the space station. Experiments exploring the behavior of gases and liquids, clarifying the thermo-physical properties of molten steel, and testing flame-resistant textiles also were delivered.
Among the most important experiments are:
Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM): Future space habitats for low-Earth orbit, the moon, Mars, or other destinations need to be lightweight and relatively simple to construct. The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) is an experimental expandable capsule that attaches to the International Space Station (ISS). After installation, BEAM inflates to roughly 13 feet (3.96 meters) long and 10.5 feet (3.20 meters) in diameter to provide a habitable volume where a crew member can enter.
Expandable habitats, occasionally described as inflatable habitats, greatly decrease the amount of transport volume for future space missions. These "expandables" weigh less and take up less room on a rocket while allowing additional space for living and working. They also provide protection from solar and cosmic radiation, space debris, and other contaminants. Crews traveling to the moon, Mars, asteroids, or other destinations could use them as habitable structures.
BEAM is scheduled to launch on SpaceX's Commercial Resupply Services Mission 8, also known as CRS-8 or SpX-8. BEAM will be installed via the Canadarm2, which will remove BEAM from the capsule and connect it to the aft port of the International Space Station's Node 3. It will be inflated at a later date.
Microbial Tracking Payload Series/Microbial Observatory-1: Along with crew members and experimental payloads, the space station is home to a variety of microbes, which could potentially threaten crew health and jeopardize equipment. The Microbial Payload Tracking Series project uses microbial analysis techniques to establish a census of the microorganisms living on space station surfaces and in its atmosphere. Crew members will sample the United States modules three times during one year, which enables researchers to conduct long-term, multigenerational studies of microbial population dynamics. This analysis can help determine whether some microbes are more virulent in space, and which genetic changes might be involved in this response. This will provide a better understanding of microbe diversity onboard the station, as well as genetic strategies for identifying specific subsets. Results from this investigation can be used to evaluate cleaning strategies, and to mitigate microbe-related risks to crew health and spacecraft system performance.
CASIS Protein Crystal Growth 4 (CASIS PCG 4): CASIS PCG 4 comprises two investigations that both leverage the microgravity environment in the growth of protein crystals and focus on structure-based design (SBDD). SBDD is an integral component in the drug discovery and development process. Primarily, SBDD relies on the three-dimensional, structural information provided by protein crystallography to inform the design of more potent, effective and selective drugs.
One investigation will study the effect of microgravity on the co-crystallization of a membrane protein with a medically relevant compound. It has been established that growing protein crystals in microgravity can avoid some of the obstacles inherent to protein crystallization on Earth, such as sedimentation. As a result, scientists will attempt to grow co-crystals of a human membrane protein in the presence of a medically relevant compound in microgravity in order to determine its three-dimensional structure. This will enable scientists to chemically target and inhibit, with "designer" compounds, an important human biological pathway that has been shown to responsible for several types of cancer.
The second investigation, A Co-Crystallization in Microgravity Approach to Structure-based Drug Design, seeks to determine whether crystals formed in microgravity represent an improvement over crystals formed by ground-based methods. Scientists expect the crystals formed in microgravity to diffract to a higher resolution than those developed on Earth, and thereby, provide greater molecular detail. This will permit more confident evaluations of ligand-binding (when a signaltriggering molecule binds to a site on a target protein). The resulting structures could be used to advance the medical-chemistry effort through improved/enhanced SBDD.
Finally the station command changed from US astronaut Scott Kelly to US astronaut Timothy Kopra. With undocking of Soyuz TMA-18M, carrying Sergei Volkov, Mikhail Korniyenko and Scott Kelly, on March 02, 2016 at 01:02:48 UTC the Expedition 46 concluded and the new ISS Expedition 47 began. Withe the landing of Soyuz TMA-18M twoandhalf hours later the 11-months-mission in space of Scott Kelly and Mikhail Korniyenko ended.
During the stay on board of the ISS the crews of Expeditions 45 / 46 carried out the following scientific experiments:
3D Printing In Zero-G (3D Printing In Zero-G Technology Demonstration)
3DA1 Camcorder (Panasonic 3D Camera)
ACE-H-2 (Advanced Colloids Experiment-Heated-2)
ACE-T-1 (Advanced Colloids Experiment-Temperature control-1)
AIRWAY MONITORING (AIRWAY MONITORING)
AMS-02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - 02)
APEX-04 (Epigenetic change in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to spaceflight - differential cytosine DNA methylation of plants on the ISS)
AQH Microscope Checkout (AQH Microscope Checkout)
ATOMIZATION (Detailed validation of the new atomization concept derived from drop tower experiments--Aimed at developing a turbulent atomization simulator)
Aniso Tubule (Roles of cortical microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins in gravity-induced growth modification of plant stems)
Area PADLES (Area Passive Dosimeter for Life-Science Experiments in Space)
BEAM (Bigelow Expandable Activity Module)
BP Reg (A Simple In-flight Method to Test the Risk of Fainting on Return to Earth After Long-Duration Space Flights)
Biochem Profile (Biochemical Profile)
Biological Rhythms 48hrs (The effect of long-term microgravity exposure on cardiac autonomic function by analyzing 48-hours electrocardiogram)
Bisphosphonates (Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss)
Body Measures (Quantification of In-Flight Physical Changes - Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture)
CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope)
CATS (Cloud-Aerosol Transport System)
Cardio Ox (Defining the Relation Between Biomarkers of Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress and Atherosclerosis Risk in Astronauts During and After Long-duration Spaceflight)
Circadian Rhythms (Circadian Rhythms)
Cognition (Individualized Real-Time Neurocognitive Assessment Toolkit for Space Flight Fatigue)
DOSIS-3D (Dose Distribution Inside the International Space Station - 3D)
Dose Tracker (Dose Tracker Application for Monitoring Medication Usage, Symptoms, and Adverse Effects During Missions)
Dynamic Surf (Experimental Assessment of Dynamic Surface Deformation Effects in Transition to Oscillatory Thermo capillary Flow in Liquid Bridge of High Prandtl Number Fluid)
Energy (Astronaut's Energy Requirements for Long-Term Space Flight)
ExHAM-Array Mark (On-orbit demonstration of target marker for space robotics)
ExHAM-CFRP Mirror (Space Environmental Testing of Lightweight and High-Precision Carbon Composite Mirrors)
ExHAM-MDM2 (Material Degradation Monitor on ExHAM)
ExHAM-PEEK (Space Environmental Testing of PEEK and PFA sample)
ExHAM-Solar Sail (Space Environment Exposure Tests of Functional Thin-Film Devices for Solar Sail)
FLEX-2J (Flame Extinguishment Experiment -2 JAXA)
Field Test (Recovery of Functional Sensorimotor Performance Following Long Duration Space Flight)
Fine Motor Skills (Effects of Long-Duration Microgravity on Fine Motor Skills: 1 year ISS Investigation)
Fluid Shifts (Fluid Shifts Before, During and After Prolonged Space Flight and Their Association with Intracranial Pressure and Visual Impairment)
Functional Task Test (Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance)
Group Combustion (Elucidation of Flame Spread and Group Combustion Excitation Mechanism of Randomly-distributed Droplet Clouds)
HDEV (High Definition Earth Viewing)
HREP-HICO (HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean)
HREP-RAIDS (HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS))
Habitability (Habitability Assessment of International Space Station)
Hip QCT (Feasibility Study: QCT Modality for Risk Surveillance of Bone - Effects of In-flight Countermeasures on Sub-regions of the Hip Bone)
IMAX (IMAX Documentary film: A PERFECT PLANET)
IPVI (Non-invasive assessment of intracranial pressure for space flight and related visual impairment)
IPVI for 1YM (Non-invasive assessment of intracranial pressure for space flight and related visual impairment)
ISS External Leak Locator (ISS Robotic External Ammonia Leak Locator)
ISS Ham Radio (ARISS) (International Space Station Ham Radio (also known as Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS)))
ISS RapidScat (ISS-RapidScat)
Interfacial Energy 1 (Interfacial phenomena and thermophysical properties of high-temperature liquids-Fundamental research of steel processing using electrostatic levitation)
Intervertebral Disc Damage (Risk of Intervertebral Disc Damage after Prolonged Space Flight)
JAXA PCG (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Protein Crystal Growth)
JAXA PCG Demo (JAXA High Quality Protein Crystal Growth Demonstration Experiment)
Journals (Behavioral Issues Associated with isolation and Confinement: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals)
MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image)
MCE (Multi-mission Consolidated Equipment)
MISSE-8 FSE (MISSE-8 FSE)
MUSCLE BIOPSY (MUSCLE BIOPSY)
MVIS Controller-1 (MVIS Controller-1)
Marangoni-UVP (Spatio-temporal Flow Structure in Marangoni Convection)
Medical Consumables Tracking (Medical Consumables Tracking)
Meteor (Meteor Composition Determination)
Micro-10 (Space Flight-Altered Motility Activation and Fertility-Dependent Responses in Sperm from Sea Urchin and Rodents)
Microbe-IV (Microbiological monitoring in the International Space Station-KIBO)
Microbial Observatory-1 (Microbial Tracking Payload Series)
Microbiome (Study of the Impact of Long-Term Space Travel on the Astronauts' Microbiome)
Multi-Omics (Multi-omics analysis of human microbial-metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem)
NanoRacks-Planet Labs-Dove (NanoRacks-Planet Labs-Dove)
NanoRacks-SyNRGE³ (NanoRacks-Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment-Cubed)
NeuroMapping (Spaceflight Effects on Neurocognitive Performance: Extent, Longevity, and Neural Bases)
OPALS (Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science)
Ocular Health (Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews)
OsteoOmics (Gravitational Regulation of Osteoblast Genomics and Metabolism)
PBRE (Packed Bed Reactor Experiment)
PK-4 (Plasma Krystall-4 )
POP 3D (Portable Onboard Printer 3D)
PS-TEPC (Establishment of dosimetric technique in the International Space Station (ISS) with Position Sensitive Tissue Equivalent Proportional Chamber)
Plant RNA Regulation (Transcriptional and Post Transcriptional Regulation of Seedling Development in Microgravity)
Plant Rotation (Plant circumnutation and its dependence on the gravity response)
RJR (Augmented) Microbial Sampling (RJR (Augmented) Microbial Sampling)
RRM-Phase 2 (Robotic Refueling Mission Phase 2)
Radi-N2 (Radi-N2 Neutron Field Study)
Radiation Environment Monitor (Radiation Environment Monitor)
Reaction Self Test (Psychomotor Vigilance Self Test on the International Space Station)
Repository (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository)
SAGE III-ISS (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III/ISS)
SCAN Testbed (Space Communications and Navigation Testbed)
SEDA-AP (Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment - Attached Payload)
SNFM (Serial Network Flow Monitor)
SPHERES-Zero-Robotics (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites-Zero-Robotics)
STMSat-1 (St. Thomas More School Cathedral Satellite-1)
Salivary Markers (The Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Microgravity on Salivary Markers of Innate Immunity)
Sally Ride EarthKAM (Sally Ride Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students)
Sleep ISS-12 (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure on ISS-12)
Solar-SOLACES (Sun Monitoring on the External Payload Facility of Columbus - SOLar Auto-Calibrating EUV/UV Spectrophotometers)
Solar-SOLSPEC (Sun Monitoring on the External Payload Facility of Columbus -Sun Monitoring on the External Payload Facility of Columbus -SOLar SPECtral Irradiance Measurements)
Space Headaches (Space Headaches)
Space Pup (Effect of space environment on mammalian reproduction)
Sprint (Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study)
Stem Cells (Study on the Effect of Space Environment to Embryonic Stem Cells to Their Development)
Story Time From Space (Story Time From Space)
Synergy (The elucidation of the re-adaptation on the attitude control after return from long term space flight)
TBone (Assessment of the effect of space flight on bone quality using three-dimensional high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT))
Telomeres (Assessing Telomere Lengths and Telomerase Activity in Astronauts)
UBNT (Ultrasonic Background Noise Test)
V-C REFLEX (Plastic alteration of vestibulo-cardiovascular reflex and its countermeasure)
Vessel ID System (Vessel ID System)
Windows on Earth (Windows on Earth)
ZBOT (Zero Boil-Off Tank)
Last update on December 21, 2016.